What is meant by the Word “Ethernet”

Ethernet is a computer networking technology family which is commonly used in local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN) and metropolitan area network (MAN). This was actually introduced in the year of 1980. This was also standardized in the year 1983. This was then refined to offer the most optimum support to longer link distance and higher bit rates. Overtime, Ethernet has widely replaced competing LAN technologies that are wired such as ARCNET, token ring and FDDI.

The original Ethernet makes use of coaxial cable as its shared medium while the newer version of this system makes use of fiber optic link and twisted pair in conjunction to switches and hubs. From the time this system was introduced in the market, this had already transferred rates at a speedy manner beyond what you expect.

The system that communicates through the use of Ethernet divides streams of important data into shorted pieces called as frames. Each of these frames is consisted of destination and source addresses as well as error checking date to ensure that damaged frames can be easily discarded and detected. With regard to OSI model, Ethernet offers services like data link layer suited for your networks at home.

Ethernet Varieties

The physical layer of Ethernet evolves with regard to a considerable time span encompassing twisted pair, coaxial and even fiber optic type of media interfaces with a speed of about 10 Mbits to 100 Gbits. It is expected that for the coming year 2018, this will then increase to 400 Gbits.

The primary introduction of the twisted CSMA/CD pair was obserbed in StarLAN which was standardized at 802.3 1BASE5 and with little penetration in the market. It also defined some of the physical apparatuses that can be carried into this system like the wiring plan, pin-out, plug/jack and the wire itself.

Of all the different varieties of Ethernet, the commonly utilized forms are the 100BASE-TX, 10BASE-T, and the 1000BASE – T.  All these Ethernet forms use a pair of twisted cables and 8P8C modular type of connectors. They also run at about 10 Mbits, 100 Mbits to I Gbits, correspondingly.

The fiber optic types of Ethernet also offer high performances, better isolation of the electrical concepts and longer distances.  All types of network protocol stack pieces of software will work on all Ethernet varieties making it easier for all users of this system.

Ethernet Devices

Ethernet networking is considered to be an essential device that allows different cables to greater distances and to be joined together. Bridge devices can also join Ethernet connection to other networks of different types like the wireless network. One famous repeater device is called as the Ethernet hub. Other devices which can leave people confused include the routers and switches.

In general, Ethernet is considered as one of the best key technologies in the internet. Despite the advanced age of the Ethernet, it continues to strongly power a lot of local area networks around the world. It also continuously improves towards meeting the future needs of people. This is also as far as high and effective performance networking is concerned.

What is meant by “Application Layer” When Referring to Data Packets?

Application layer is considered to be an abstraction layer that specifies some of the interface methods and shared protocols used by communication network hosts. This is also used in both standardized computer networking models namely the Open System Interconnection or OSI model and the Internet Protocol Suite or the IP model. Despite the fact that these models are similar as far as their level layer is concerned, their detailed purposes and definitions are still completely different.

IP Model

In IP model, the application layer is primarily consisted of interface methods and communication protocols which are thereby used in communication processes to the internet protocol computer networks.  Their application layer can only standardize the communication. It will still depend on the underlying type of transport layer protocol. This will establish the host to be able to host information channel of transfer. This also helps manage some data exchange processes in a peer to peer or client-server networking model.

Despite the fact that IP mode doesn’t emphasize specified data formats or rules that application layer needs to consider during communication processes, its original specifications do not recommend or rely on the principle of robustness as far as the application design is concerned.

OSI Model

When it comes to the OSI model, application layer is even narrower in its scope. This defines application layer as an effective user interface. This is somehow responsible for the display of some received data and information to all users. In contrast with that, IP model is not concerned in such necessary details.

OSI also explicitly differentiates the additional functionality below the application layer and above the transport layers namely; the presentation layer and the session layer. OSI also emphasizes strict functional modular separation of these two layers. They also offer some protocol implementations in each of the different layer.

Layer 7 (The application)

Seven layers with respect to application layer can be separated into two different parts. Layers one to tree are considered to be the transportation set consisted of physical layer, network layer and data link layer. When it comes to the physical layer, this transmits raw bits over communication channels.

Now, the data link layer assures that the suitable physical protocols are assigned to the appropriate data. Network layers control subnet operations which are considered as identifiable network parts. These also decide just how the data will be sent to its recipient devices.

Transport layer which is also the forth application layer sustains the flow of the data. Recovery of data and error checking are also a part of that specific type of layer. This also accepts some data, split it into smaller units and ensures that all pieces of data arrived properly.

Layers five up to seven is considered to be the application layer set. Session layer allows users use different machines to be able to establish the best sessions between a user and a recipient. The presentation layer highlights semantics and syntax. This also converts the data sent at a standardized format.

The final layer is the application layer which contains different types of protocols. This is a layer that interfaces with all other types of applications and operating systems that communicate data between messages, files and other networking activities. Each application layer offers different functions that you must be aware of. This is also especially if you want to obtain a smooth flow of data in your system.  More information can be found on Wikipedia here.

What is Latency and How Can It Affect Internet Access Speeds?

Latency is one of the common issues to face when it comes to internet networks and connections. In connection with this, wired connections of network also tend to obtain a low latency. Nevertheless, wireless connections tend to obtain a higher latency.

Now, latency refers to the different types of delays usually incurred into your network data processing.  Low latency network connection highlights delay times while the high latency connections suffer from long term delays. Apart from the propagation delays, latency may consist of transmission delays as a physical medium property with processing delays like network hops and proxy servers on your internet.

Latency in Real World

For instance, you browse your web to search for different kinds of connection. Here is how latency affects your internet access speeds:

  • Satellite Internet Connections ( High Latency, High Speed) – You click a web page link and after noticing some delay, the web page will start to download and show up at once.
  • Theoretical Connections (Low Latency, Low Speed) – You click a web page and then it starts to load instantly. However, this will usually take time to load the page as you see the images loading one at a time.
  • Cable Internet Connections (Low Latency, High Speed) – You click a web page and you see the page that appears right away.

Latency usually manifests delay. For instance, if you have to chat to someone using Skype using high latency connection of the internet, there will usually be a pause for a while. It is also somehow possible that the communication with each other might end up.  If you will also play online games, expect that your actions and events will be delayed with this latency.

The Cause of Latency

Both latency and bandwidth depend on your internet connection. They are also simply affected by several factors such as the location of the remote server, network hardware, and the routers of the internet in between the server and the user.

Moreover, the packets do not travel instantly via routers. In each router, the packet will have to travel with some delays for few milliseconds. This will also increase that depends on the packet delays that they will have to meet.

However, there are some kinds of connections such as satellite internet connections that offer high latency even at its best condition. It also takes about 500 up to 700ms for packet to reach internet service providers towards satellite internet connections.

Latency is not just a problem for satellite internet connections. This is also a problem to different types of connections around the world. This may delay the internet access speeds as you choose to browse a certain page in a web.

Measuring Latency

For those who want to determine the extent of the effect of latency in your internet access speed, spare some time and effort to measure the latency. You only need to have access on the ping command of the web address and of your computer.  This is by far a significant measurement process that can help you determine if you need to upgrade your computer and internet connection system even if the latency is already at its highest extent.

What is the Role of a Firewall in Protecting Equipment from the Wider Internet?

Firewalls are among the most effective computer security systems that secure and protect your home or office personal computers and networks against hackers, malicious codes and intruders. These also protect your equipment from any offensive software that usually resides on your computer system. In these days where online security concern is the top priority of most computer users, Firewall just gives you the protection and safety you need from a wider internet.

What Are Firewalls?

Firewalls are known to be a hardware device or software program that can filter all traffic flowing into your personal computer or network via the internet connection. They also sift through the flow of data and block those harmful networks that get inside your computer.

When firewalls are connected to an internet, even standalone personal computer or interconnected computer networks make it much easier to target unscrupulous hackers and malicious software. With firewalls, these can offer the best protection and security that make you less vulnerable. Using a firewall can reduce the impact of a ransomware or malware attack.

How Does a Firewall Work?

Firewalls will be set up into your internet connection that subjects the entire data flow to a detailed and careful monitoring process. They can also be tuned properly to follow some certain rules. These rules highlight security rules that can be set up by your own or by professional administrators. These allow certain traffic towards web servers, telnet servers, FTP servers that give a computer administrator or owner an immense control on the flow of traffic that comes in and out of the network or system.

The rules are the ones that will decide who are those who can get connected to your internet, the connections that you need, the kind of files to be transferred in and out. The entire traffic that comes in and out could also be controlled and watched that give firewall installers the optimum protection and security you need.  A example of a firewall would be something like the WatchGuard Firebox M Series

Firewalls Logic

Firewalls utilize three different types of filtering systems that are follows:

  1. Packet Purity or Packet Filtering

In this system, information packets and firewalls flow data through the analysis of the packets. These will also sniff out some unwanted or offensive packets according on their definitions

  1. Proxy

Firewalls in this type of mechanism assume the recipient role. In return, these send it to a node that has requested the data or information and vice versa.

  1. Inspection

In this firewall mechanism, instead of examining the entire information located in the packet, they mark some key features in outgoing requests and check for the same matching characteristics in it. After that, they may decide if the information that comes through is relevant or not.

Firewalls have their essential role to play in protecting your personal computer or network from wider internet hackers, intruders and all unwanted incidents. With the benefits that these can offer, it is not surprising to know that more people these days choose to have their firewalls to secure and protect necessary data and information they have.

What is a DDoS Attack?

What is a DDoS Attack?

The acronym “DDoS” stands for Distributed Denial of Service. DDoS is the kind of DOS attack wherein various compromised systems that are usually infected with a Trojan computer virus are used for targeting a solitary system that triggers a Denial of Service attack. The victims of a DDoS attack are comprised of the end targeted system as well as all of the systems that are used and controlled maliciously by a hacker within a distributed attack.

The denial of service attacks are described by the explicit attempt by the attackers so as to prevent legitimate users of the service from using this service. Within the distributed denial of service attack, the incoming traffic flooding the victims initiates from numerous different sources, probably hundreds to thousands or more.

How Do DDoS Attack Work?

On a DDoS attack, the inward traffic that floods the victim originates from many various sources, probably hundreds to thousands or even millions. It successfully makes it very difficult to prevent the attack just through blocking an IP address. It’s very hard to differentiate genuine user traffic from the attack traffic if spread across various points of derivation.

The Variance between DDoS and DoS Attacks

A Denial of Service attack is far different from the DDoS attack. A DoS attack usually uses a computer and internet connection to deluge a besieged resource or system. A DDoS attack makes use of multiple computers as well as internet connections for flooding a targeted resource. The DDoS attacks are usually international attacks which are circulated via botnets.

Forms of DDoS Attacks

There are different forms of DDoS attacks. Typical attacks involve the following:

  • Traffic attacks – the traffic overflowing attacks conduct a big volume of UDP, TCP and the ICPM packets to targets. Legitimate requests may get lost & such attacks might be complemented through malware exploitation.
  • Bandwidth attacks – a DDos attack overloads a target with huge amounts of rubbish data. It results to loss of equipment resources and network bandwidth and it could result to a comprehensive denial of service.
  • Application attacks – the application-layer data posts could deplete the resources within an application layer which leaves the services of a target system unavailable.

A DDoS attack makes use of different techniques for sending numerous junk requests to a site. It results to an increase of the amount of traffic that goes to your website that it becomes overwhelmed, making that almost impossible for anybody to load a page. Websites need to filter out traffic from a bad dam which allows a lot of water to pass through.

But when somebody upstream could send unexpected flood down, the dam would overflow and may even crack, allowing the water over. It floods the entire region underneath, and within our analogy, it drowns the entire website you are attempting to reach. This time, nobody could go there.

The criminal perpetrators of a DoS attack usually targets services or websites hosted on a high profile web server like a credit card payment gateway or banks. Blackmail, revenge and activism could motivate such attacks.